Плюсы и минусы malware

Может и ваш компьютер «болен» Malware

Malware представляет собой постоянную опасность для корпоративных сетей. На текущий момент Malware разносится с неумолимой скоростью и самыми разнообразными способами. Вполне возможно, что и ваш ПК поражен им. Что можно с этим поделать?

Если случилось так, что ваш компьютер получил это зловредное ПО, то не стоит устанавливать новую версию Windows. Лучше сначала попытаться избавиться от Malware самостоятельно, либо, если вы не уверены в своих силах, вам понадобится антивирусное программное обеспечение.

Существуют настолько хорошо защищенные Malware, что их практически нельзя удалить, если они запущены. Стоит отметить, что многие из anti-Malware сервисов могут удалить лишь половину «инфекций», поэтому нужно использовать сразу несколько продуктов, чтобы быть уверенными в максимально полной очистке системы.

Как защититься от Malware и хакеров

Чтобы «не попасться на удочку» хакеров нужно следовать хотя бы базовым правилам безопасности в сети. Первым делом убедитесь, что компьютер защищён антивирусной программой. В последнее время активно развивается и получает многочисленные награды за скорость работы и эффективность обнаружения угроз антивирус Malwarebytes, отзывы о нем вы найдете по этой ссылке. Стоит отметить, что ПО Malwarebytes также сканирует на потенциально нежелательные приложения (PUP) и потенциально нежелательную модификацию (PUM), правда это требует дополнительных ресурсов процессора.

Веб-сайты, при посещении, проверяются на наличие вредоносных скриптов даже без установки дополнительных расширений в браузер. Хотя и в Windows 10 уже встроен приличный антивирус Windows Defender, но для улучшенной защиты, а также для Windows XP/7/8.1, лучше установить дополнительную защиту.

Включайте брандмауэр, хотя бы встроенный в Windows 7/8/10. Брандмауэр закрывает порты, чтобы хакеры «не увидели» компьютер в сети и не смогли получить доступ к уязвимостям. Большинство антивирусного ПО имеют собственный продвинутый брандмауэр и заменяют им встроенный в Windows. Даже на настройках «по умолчанию» брандмауэр надёжно защищает компьютер от сетевых атак.

Устанавливайте обновления ОС Windows, особенно касающиеся безопасности, и другого используемого ПО. Думайте головой, не кликайте по зазывающим заголовкам на неизвестных вам сайтах, и особенно в электронных письмах, скачивайте программы только с официальных источников, не вставляйте в компьютер чужие флешки без включённого антивируса, не высылайте пароли по требованию «администрации сайта» и будете в безопасности.

Полное описание

Пользуясь программой Malwarebytes Anti-Malware, можно обеспечить надлежащий уровень средств защиты для вашего компьютера от всевозможных видов вредоносного ПО. Программа блокирует сотни самых опасных троянов, руткитов, вредоносных веб-сайтов. Вы останетесь довольны скоростью работы утилиты, а также возможностью оперативно формировать список игнорирования при подготовке к сканированию.

После завершения диагностики ОС, Malwarebytes Anti Malware выведет подробную информацию о результатах проведенной работы, вы сможете вручную удалять любые подозрительные программы, троянсские модули и пр., либо выполнить автоматическую очистку. Последняя версия позволяет использовать преимущество двух режимов сканирования, а также указывать требуемый диск для проверки. Использовать командную строку и прочие неудобные средства управления не придется. Разработчики сделали не только удобный пользовательский интерфейс, но и реализовали интеграцию в контекстное меню ОС персонального компьютера.

How to prevent malware

When it comes to malware, prevention is better than a cure. Fortunately, there are some common sense, easy behaviors that minimize your chances of running into any nasty software.

  • Double-check your downloads. From pirating sites to official storefronts, malware is often lurking just around the corner. So before downloading, always double-check that the provider is trustworthy by carefully reading reviews and comments.

  • Get an ad-blocker. Malvertising – where hackers use infected banners or pop-up ads to infect your device – is on the rise. You can’t know which ads are bad: so it’s safer to just block them all with a reliable ad-blocker.

  • Careful where you browse. Malware can be found anywhere, but it’s most common in websites with poor backend security, like small, local websites. If you stick to large, reputable sites, you severely reduce your risk of encountering malware.

Unfortunately, even if you follow the above advice to the letter, you might still get infected with malware: hackers have found ways to sneak their viruses into every corner of the web. For real security, you need to combine healthy online habits with powerful and reliable anti-malware software, like AVG AntiVirus FREE, which detects and stops malware before it infects your PC, Mac, or mobile device.

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Как Malware получает котроль над системой

Для работы Malware требуется, чтобы пользователь его запустил, и это – только первый шаг. Достаточно часто Malware использует другие методы, чтобы предоставить себе наиболее вероятную гарантию хотя бы на единоразовый запуск в каждой из сессий работы системы

Для Malware исключительно важно производить запуск себя и резидентно присутствовать в памяти. И удобнее всего Malware прописываться при загрузке компьютера, а также при инициализации и переконфигурации системы

Основные места обитания Malware – файлы command.com, autoexec.bat и config.sys, файлы конфигурации в системах DOS и Windows при загрузке по стандартной схеме. Кроме того, часто Malware прячется в файлах главных шаблонов офисных приложений Word и Excel – Normal.dot и XLStart.

An ounce of prevention vs. a pound of cure

From desktops and laptops to tablets and smartphones, all our devices are vulnerable to malware. Given a choice, who wouldn’t want to prevent an infection instead of dealing with the aftermath?

The best antivirus software alone is not up to the task, as evidenced by the regular stream of newspaper headlines reporting yet another successful cyberattack.

So, what should you do to stay safe? What kind of cybersecurity software — antivirus software or anti-malware software — should one choose to address a threat landscape that consists of legacy viruses and emerging malware? What is the best antivirus program for you?

The fact is, traditional antiviruses alone are inadequate against emerging zero-day threats, allow ransomware to successfully hijack computers, and don’t completely remove malware. What’s needed is an advanced cybersecurity program that is flexible and smart enough to anticipate today’s increasingly sophisticated threats.

Malwarebytes for Windows fulfils this need for advanced antivirus security (along with Malwarebytes for Mac, Malwarebytes for Android, and Malwarebytes business solutions). Malwarebytes offers one of the best antivirus programs to protect computers against malware, hacks, viruses, ransomware, and other ever-evolving threats to help support a safe online antivirus experience. Our AI-enhanced, heuristics-based technology blocks threats that a traditional computer antivirus isn’t smart enough to stop.

For an additional layer of antivirus protection, consider Malwarebytes Browser Guard. It’s the browser extension that stops annoying ads and trackers. Plus, it’s the world’s first browser extension that blocks tech support scams.

Industry watchers have cited Malwarebytes for Windows for its role in a layered antivirus protection approach, providing one of the best antivirus programs without degrading system performance. It removes all traces of malware, blocks the latest threats, and is a fast virus scanner.

Regardless of the cybersecurity software you choose your first line of defense is education. Stay up to date on the latest online threats and antivirus protection by making the Malwarebytes Labs blog a regular read.

History of spyware

As with much Internet discourse, it’s difficult to pin down exactly where “spyware” as a word and a concept originated. Public references to the term date back to Usenet discussions happening in the mid-90s. By the early 2000s, “spyware” was being used by cybersecurity companies, in much the same way we might use the term today; i.e. some sort of unwanted software program designed to spy on your computer activity.

In June 2000, the first anti-spyware application was released. In October 2004, America Online and the National Cyber-Security Alliance performed a survey. The result was startling. About 80% of all Internet users have their system affected by spyware, about 93% of spyware components are present in each of the computers, and 89% of the computer users were unaware of their existence. Out of the affected parties, almost all, about 95%, confessed that they never granted permission to install them.

At present, and in general, the Windows operating system is the preferred target for spyware applications, thanks largely to its widespread use. However, in recent years spyware developers have also turned their attention to the Apple platform, as well as to mobile devices.

Types of spyware

In most of the cases, the functionality of any spyware threat depends on the intentions of its authors. For example, some typical functions designed into spyware include the following.

    • Password stealers are applications designed to harvest passwords from infected computers. The types of collected passwords may include stored credentials from web browsers, system login credentials, and sundry critical passwords. These passwords may be kept in a location of the attacker’s choosing on the infected machine or may be transmitted to a remote server for retrieval.
    • Banking Trojans (e.g. Emotet) are applications designed to harvest credentials from financial institutions. They take advantage of vulnerabilities in browser security to modify web pages, modify transaction content, or insert additional transactions, all in a completely covert fashion invisible to both the user and host web application. Banking Trojans may target a variety of financial institutions, including banks, brokerages, online financial portals, or digital wallets. They might also transmit collected information to remote servers for retrieval.
    • Infostealers are applications that scan infected computers and seek out a variety of information, including usernames, passwords, email addresses, browser history, log files, system information, documents, spreadsheets, or other media files. Like banking Trojans, infostealers may exploit browser security vulnerabilities to collect personal information in online services and forums, then transmit the information to a remote server or store it on your PC locally for retrieval.
    • Keyloggers, also referred to as system monitors, are applications designed to capture computer activity, including keystrokes, websites visited, search history, email discussions, chatroom dialogue, and system credentials. They typically collect screenshots of the current window at scheduled intervals. Keyloggers may also collect functionality, allowing for stealthy capture and transmission of images and audio/video from any connected devices. They might even allow attackers to collect documents that are printed on connected printers, which can then be transmitted to a remote server, or stored locally for retrieval.

Beware of Greeks bearing gifts

In Virgil’s epic poem, The Aeneid, a clever Greek war strategist named Odysseus devises a plan to get his men inside the walled city of Troy. Instead of destroying or climbing the city’s walls, Odysseus sees another way in: with deception. Trojan soldiers watch as the Greeks appear to sail away, leaving behind a giant wooden horse as a token of surrender. Drunk on victory, the Trojans bring the horse inside their walls, only to discover Odysseus and his men were hidden inside the whole time.

Like its namesake, Trojan horse attacks, or simply “Trojans” use deception and social engineering to trick unsuspecting users into running seemingly benign computer programs that hide malicious ulterior motives.

How do I protect myself from spyware?

The best defense against spyware, as with most malware, starts with your behavior. Follow these basics of good cyber self-defense.

  1. Don’t open emails from unknown senders.
  2. Don’t download files unless they come from a trusted source.
  3. Mouse-over links before clicking on them and make sure you’re being sent to the right webpage.
  4. Use a reputable cybersecurity program to counter advanced spyware. In particular, look for cybersecurity that includes real-time protection.

A quick note about real-time protection. Real-time protection automatically blocks spyware and other threats before they can activate on your computer. Some traditional cybersecurity or antivirus products rely heavily on signature-based technology—these products can be easily circumvented by today’s modern threats.

You should also look out for features that block the delivery of spyware itself on your machine, such as anti-exploit technology and malicious website protection, which blocks websites that host spyware. The premium version of Malwarebytes has a solid reputation for spyware protection.

Digital life comes with ubiquitous dangers in the daily online landscape. Fortunately, there are straightforward and effective ways to protect yourself. Between a cybersecurity suite and commonsense precautions, you should be able to keep every machine you use free from spyware invasions and their malicious intent.

See all our reporting on spyware at Malwarebytes Labs.

How do I get adware?

There are two main ways by which adware sneaks onto your system. In the first one, you download a program—usually freeware or shareware—and it quietly installs adware without your knowledge, or permission. That’s because the program’s author signed up with the adware vendor. Why? Because the revenue generated by the advertisements enables the program to be offered gratis (although even paid software from an untrustworthy source can deliver an adware payload). Then the adware launches its mischief, and the user learns there’s a price to pay for “free.”

“There are two main ways by which adware sneaks onto your system.”

The second method is just as insidious. You’re visiting a website. Maybe it’s a trusted site; maybe
it’s a sketchy one. Either way, it can be infected with adware, which takes advantage of a vulnerability in
the user’s web browser to deliver a
drive-by download. After it burrows in, the adware starts collecting your information, redirecting you to
malicious websites, and throwing more advertisements into your browser.

How do I get malware?

“Malware attacks would not work without the most important ingredient: you.”

Bottom line, it’s best to stick to trusted sources for mobile apps, only installing reputable third-party apps, and always downloading those apps directly from the vendor—and never from any other site. All in all, there is a world of bad actors out there, throwing tainted bait at you with an offer for an Internet accelerator, new download manager, hard disk drive cleaner, or an alternative web search service.

Even if you install something from a credible source, if you don’t pay attention to the permission request to install other bundled software at the same time, you could be installing software you don’t want. This extra software, also known as a potentially unwanted program (PUP), is often presented as a necessary component, but it often isn’t.

On the other hand, if you’re not running an adequate security program, the malware infection and its aftermath are still on you. 

Trojanized apps on Android smartphones

Trojans aren’t just a problem for laptops and desktops. They attack mobile devices as well, which makes sense given the tempting target presented by the billions of phones in use.

As with computers, the Trojan presents itself as a legitimate program, although it’s actually a fake version of the app full of malware.

Such Trojans usually lurk on unofficial and pirate app markets, enticing users to download them. The Trojans run the full gamut of mischief, infecting the phone with ads and keyloggers, which can steal information. Dialer Trojans can even generate revenue by sending out premium SMS texts.    

“Browser extension add-ons can act as Trojans as well….”

Android users have been the victims of Trojanized apps even from Google Play, which is constantly scanning and purging weaponized apps (many times after the Trojan’s discovery). Browser extension add-ons can act as Trojans as well, since it’s a payload capable of carrying embedded bad code.

While Google can remove browser add-ons from computers, on phones the Trojans can place transparent icons on the screen. It’s invisible to the user, but nonetheless reacts to a finger touch to launch its malware.

Mobile adware

There’s not much real estate room on a mobile’s screen. So when a mysterious icon moves into your start
screen, or scads of ads start clogging your notification bar, you’ve probably got an uninvited adware guest.
No big surprise, since thousands of Android apps now contain the gift that keeps on shoving icons and ads at you
without warning.

There are two methods through which mobiles come down with adware: through the browser and through downloaded
applications.

  • Infection by browser refers to a known exploit, caused by the way most browsers handle redirections executed by JavaScript code. It’s a weakness that can cause ad pop-ups; and advertising affiliates know about it, and how to exploit it. If your mobile’s browser has been compromised, then the best way to block the pop-ups is to use a different browser, disable JavaScript, or install a browser with ad blocking. Another remedy to pop-ups is to back out of them using Android’s back key. Or you can clear your history and cache, which will also stop the ads from coming back.

  • Infection by downloaded applications refers to getting infected with persistent ads through adware apps
    installed on a phone. They present in different forms, from full screen ads inside and outside of the infected
    app, to the device notifications and on the lock screen. Typically, a third-party app store installs this kind
    of adware app. So it’s best to avoid third-party app stores, although even Google Play has been an
    unwitting source of adware-infested apps. 

Despite its being an annoying pest, take some small comfort in the fact that such adware is generally not blatantly
malicious, threatening your device like malware might. Many of the free apps you download to your phone often
include third-party ad content, providing software developers an alternative revenue stream so you can have their
offering for free. Still, adware is not generally benevolent; so faced with a free app that stuffs your device with
adware, and a paid program that plays nicely, consider the best choice for you.

How to characterize a Trojan

People sometimes think of a Trojan as a virus or a worm, but it is really neither. A virus is a file infector which can self-replicate and spread by attaching itself to another program. Worms are a type of malware similar to viruses, but they don’t need to be attached to another program in order to spread. Most viruses are now seen as legacy threats. Worms have also become rare, though they do pop up from time to time. 

“A Trojan can be like a Swiss Army knife of hacking.”

Think of Trojans as an umbrella term for malware delivery, because there are various kinds of Trojans. Depending on the criminal programmer’s intent, a Trojan can be like a Swiss Army knife of hacking—acting as a bit of standalone malware, or as a tool for other activities, such as delivering future payloads, communicating with the hacker at a later time, or opening up the system to attacks just as the Greek soldiers did from inside the Trojan fortress.

Put another way, a Trojan is a delivery strategy that hackers use to deliver any number of threats, from ransomware that immediately demands money, to spyware that conceals itself while it steals valuable information like personal and financial data.

Keep in mind that adware or PUPs (potentially unwanted programs) can be confused with Trojans because the delivery method is similar. For example, sometimes adware sneaks onto your computer as part of a bundle of software. You think you’re downloading one piece of software, but it’s really two or three. The program authors usually include the adware for marketing affiliate reasons so they can monetize their installer with offers—usually clearly labeled. Such adware bundlers are typically less malicious than Trojans. Also, they do not conceal themselves as Trojans do. But since the adware distribution vector resembles that of a Trojan, it can cause confusion.

Who do spyware authors target?

Unlike some other types of malware, spyware authors do not really target specific groups or people. Instead, most spyware attacks cast a wide net to collect as many potential victims as possible. And that makes everyone a spyware target, as even the slightest bit of information might find a buyer.

“Spyware attacks cast a wide net to collect as many potential victims as possible.”

Information obtained through stolen documents, pictures, video, or other digital items can even be used for extortion purposes.

So, at the end of the day, no one is immune from spyware attacks, and attackers usually care little about whom they are infecting, as opposed to what they are after.

Функционал Malware

Количество доступных пользователю Malware функций зависит от того, какую именно версию антивирусной программы он выбрал. Так, для частного использования существует два варианта: бесплатный и премиум. Кроме того, ряд дополнительных возможностей открывается в корпоративной версии антивируса.

Бесплатная версия

Бесплатная версия Malware, по сути, состоит из сканера, определяющего различное вредоносное ПО в системе. Однако его придётся запускать вручную, и никаких дополнительных возможностей он не предусматривает. За счёт отсутствия большого количества функций бесплатная версия может работать параллельно с другими антивирусными ПО.

Malware Premium

Главным инструментом Malware Premium можно считать интеллектуальную (несигнатурную) защиту. Она строится на отсутствии баз данных, по которой антивирус сравнивал бы коды файлов. Иными словами, система интеллектуального сканирования построена с учётом поведения, а не кода вирусов. Это позволяет избежать их проникновения в систему. В том числе речь идёт о мимикрирующем вирусе (переписывающем свой код при проникновении в файл). Несмотря на отсутствие баз данных, такая интеллектуальная защита эффективна. Причина заключается в том, что даже новые вирусы построены на основе логики старых. По крайней мере, они частично используют их методы, чем выдают себя. За счёт этого интеллектуальная система обнаруживает вредоносное ПО ещё на начальной стадии заражения.

Другой значимой функцией является защита от фишинга. Она не только не даст зайти на подозрительный сайт. Эта система просканирует сертификат, выданный сайту, а также его корневой сертификат. Она такзже предотвратит попытки автоматически перенаправить пользователя на другой сайт. Кроме того, система защищает от применения скрытых Java-скриптов. Ещё она не даст проникнуть вредоносному ПО в операционную систему. Защита сработает даже если была использована уязвимость самого браузера.

Плюсы и минусы Malware включают несколько дополнительных функций. Например, к ним можно отнести антишифровальщик. Данная функция не позволяет ПО шифровать данные на ПК без уведомления пользователя. Кроме того, доступен карантин. Это отличное решение для опытных пользователей. Так, подозрительное ПО не удаляется сразу, а отправляется в карантин, тем самым обезвреживая его. Однако дальнейшую судьбу этих файлов и программ предстоит решить именно пользователю. Если он посчитает необходимым удалить их, у него будет возможность сделать это. Или он сможет вернуть файлы и программы с карантина на свой страх и риск.

Дополнительно, у антивируса есть отчёты и расписания. Первая функция позволяет получать актуальную информацию о состоянии своей операционной системы. Расписание же касается времени проверок и выполнения программой других задач. Его можно регулировать самостоятельно, выбирая подходящие время и действия.

Malware для бизнеса

Как и у многих других антивирусов, у Malware есть предложение для компаний. В нём присутствует централизованное управление, а также облачное решение, которое используется для массовой проверки файлов. Единственный минус заключается в том, что данные продукты представлены только на английском языке.

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